Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam and must be performed by all Muslims if given the opportunity. The pilgrim arrives at the place by his own means, and here a personal transfer is not foreseen. “In the Kaaba (building in the courtyard of the al-Haram mosque in Mecca) an enormous number of pilgrims accumulates, a particularly strong agglomeration occurs during the first stoning of Satan (one of the main Hajj rituals), but this is not. True Muslims do not stop, they are ready to make the pilgrimage to Mecca again and again to feel close to the Almighty,” writes the RIA Novosti correspondent.
“Hajj” – translated from Arabic means a strong intention, desire, to visit the one who was exalted, in Islam this word has a specific meaning – to visit the Kaaba in Mecca and its surroundings (Mount Arafat, Muzdalifa and the Mina valleys) to perform special services.
From the history of the origin of the rite.
According to Muslim tradition, the worship of the Kaaba and the rites associated with it date back to the Prophet Adam: after the Kaaba (House) was built, an angel went out with Adam to Mount Arafat and told him about all the rites that people should perform during Hajj. Then the two of them went to the Kaaba and made a week-long detour. After that, Adam did Hajj 40 more times. The Qur’an states that the Kaaba is the first building dedicated to the worship of Allah.
Who is obligated to perform Hajj
A person who denies the obligation of Hajj cannot be considered a Muslim. If she had the opportunity to make a pilgrimage, but did not do it, then a Muslim after death will appear before Allah in the form of a disobedient, since he did not fulfill his duty.
Every Muslim must perform the Hajj, Rinat Iskhakov, RIA Novosti quotes RIA Novosti, under the following conditions:
– at the time of the pilgrimage, a person must be of legal age, it is also necessary to have freedom for this time, a clear mind and physical health.
In addition, the Hajj ritual (pilgrimage to holy places) is performed by a person if he has enough funds to support himself at this time, as well as his family, it is necessary to pay off all debts before the start of the Hajj, and besides it is impossible to do it on credit , it is necessary to organize your security and early departure so as not to be late at the start of the ceremony.
Types of Hajj
There are three types of hajj: al-ifrad, al-kyran, at-tamattu.
1. The word “ifrad” means the selection of something from a number of others. If a Muslim performs only Hajj rituals, his pilgrimage is called Ifrad.
2. The word “kyran” means the combination of two things. A pilgrim who wants to combine Hajj and Umrah performs a qiran. Here the rituals are played once, but with a double intention.
3. The word “tamattu” translates as “use, enjoy.” If a pilgrim performs Umra first and after a short rest (during a journey) Hajj, this will be called Tamattu.
All pilgrims performing kyran or tamattu must sacrifice an animal in gratitude for having been spared the worries of two separate journeys.
Flights of Muslim pilgrims for Hajj are carried out from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Grozny, Makhachkala, Ufa, Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Nazran, Kostroma, Orenburg, they are organized by special companies that sell tours with food and accommodation. You can also get there on your own, the cost of an air ticket in 2023 averages 30 thousand rubles. Regular bus service is carried out with all neighboring states, with the exception of Iraq. Every day, five to seven comfortable buses go to Riyadh, Mecca and Jeddah from Dubai (UAE), Doha (Qatar), Manama (Bahrain), El Kuwait (Kuwait). Ferries from Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea and Iran also go to Saudi Arabia.
preparing the pilgrimage
Before embarking on a pilgrimage, it is important to prepare. You have to have pure intentions. It is not necessary to perform the ceremony for the sake of material gain or fame. It is necessary to sincerely repent of all sins and prayerfully promise not to commit new ones. And also make up for all missed fasts and prayers, pay zakat (compulsory charity prescribed for people with a certain income), if it has not been observed all the time. It is important that the funds for which the Hajj will be performed are obtained in an honest manner, otherwise the pilgrimage will not be counted.
How does the Hajj end?
The pilgrimage ends with the main Muslim holiday of sacrifice – Eid al-Adha. Pilgrims sacrifice a bull, ram, or camel, the meat of which is then sent to the hungry. If a Muslim cannot make a sacrifice, he must fast for three days during Hajj and seven after. Then there is a ritual haircut for men, after which he must return to Mecca to go around the Kaaba again and perform the ritual of running between the hills of Safa and Marwa.
How women perform Hajj
During the Hajj, women perform the same rituals as men, except cutting their hair. If a woman is under the age of 45, she must be accompanied by a close male relative over the age of 17. Muslim women dress in luminous clothes, remaining covered in the same way as on normal days, the only difference is that during the pilgrimage you cannot completely cover your face and wear gloves that cover your hands.