Adif AV (Alta Velocidad) stopped investing 1,977 million euros in autonomous communities as a whole in 2021. According to the data of the Ministry of Finance on territorial investments, the state-owned company in charge of managing the AVE routes was the organization that increased the distance between the autonomous communities. the planned budget and the executed one, which also focused on three specific communities: Catalonia, Andalusia and the Valencian Community. In these territories, the most punishable by violations of the state, High Speed was responsible for almost half of the funds that did not arrive.
In Adif AV, they cite the technical reasons behind the contract and the increase in the cost of raw materials to explain the situation. At the same time, they explain that in the three communities the number of tenders was very high, with a record in 2021 in Catalonia, which will partly be reflected in the work carried out in the coming years. Tenders have been held between the three communities since June 2018 to invest $3,895 million in rail infrastructure added high-speed and conventional, an amount that Adif AV says will ease the current poor performance.
Catalonia, where 470 million was not invested; Andalusia, with 695 million in the box, and the Valencian Community, with another 348, were the communities that accumulated the fastest investment defaults, a situation that, with some variations, had already occurred in previous years. Three territories appear in every budget proposal as the most favorable for investment, but when performance is considered, they clearly lag behind others, such as the Community of Madrid, both in terms of gross investment and population. The 2021 data once again confirmed this trend, and also revealed the inefficiency of investments in the structure of high-speed rail.
Much of the rail infrastructure in Spain is run by two companies, Adif and Adif AV, which in turn are the two companies that make the most territorial investments each year. For this reason, the interest that both companies fail to meet has a significant impact on the overall calculation.
Even 5% of the planned investment in high speed in Catalonia has not been realized.
In the case of Catalonia, trains, both high-speed and conventional, are responsible for nearly three-quarters of the discrepancies. On regular network, 24% of the planned investment was completed, while on high-speed mode, the completion did not reach 5%, the data that made it the community with the lowest total investment, with 35.8% in 2021.
The latter does not occur in Andalusia, where Adif’s holes in the conventional network are less important. By contrast, in Andalusia, the lack of investment in high speed is even more pronounced, with a record 700 million missing from the AVE network. Only 13% of the planned budget was completed, just in the year the service celebrated its 30th anniversary.
Something similar is happening in the Valencian Community, where the high-speed network has suffered the most from promised but not realized investments. In this territory, 19% of the planned was completed, leaving 348 million in the box. In the case of Valencia, conventional lines have also accumulated defaults, with $118 million not invested during 2021. Budget execution remained at the level of 27%.
The situation in the three above-mentioned communities is particularly dire, but the train was in 2021 one of the least profitable investments across all autonomies in general. In Spain as a whole, Adif and Adif AV accounted for more than half of the violations, although communities such as Madrid, where only 30 million Adif were not invested, were not affected.
When analyzing the total amount of what was not invested, not only those related to the railway appear among the inappropriate ones, although they are the most. For example, the ports added an investment gap of 11.5%, the Ministry of Transport itself – 5.9%, and Enaire, which manages the flight infrastructure, stopped investing 3.8% of territorial investments for all autonomies. The “other” section corresponds to the performance of the rest of the entities, state companies and ministries dependent on the General State Administration, all of which have much less weight both in what was budgeted and in what was implemented.
Reverse side of the coin: Madrid, 180% performance
Official data from the Treasury showed a very unequal situation across the communities, because although Catalonia, Andalusia and the Valencian Community did not achieve half of the planned investments, the Community of Madrid exceeded all forecasts by investing 180% of what was budgeted. .
However, these overinvestment figures cannot be attributed to the railroad network. Although Adif and Adif AV were able to make almost 100% of their investments in Madrid, the surplus was due primarily to the ministries themselves and investments provided by Renfe, the operator that operates, among other things, the large Madrid Cercanías network. The Department of Transportation, for example, invested four times more than planned, due to the unforeseen rescue of radial highways. But this is not the only institution that has faced investments that were not in the original calculations. For example, Renfe, which more than doubled its investment, stands out, or Justice and CSIC, which multiplied the planned investments by 9 and 10 times, respectively.
Explanations of Adif and Adif A.V.
The public companies that manage the rail infrastructure in Spain do not evaluate the data provided by the Ministry of Finance, but explain that there are reasons why 2021 was a year of investment decline. Among other issues, they cite the price of raw materials, “in some materials above 100%”, which would slow down the work. “This situation, which is not unique to Adif and Adif AV, is relevant in numbers as it is the largest investment organization in the country. This situation has already come since 2021, but the war in Ukraine has significantly exacerbated the problem, ”the two companies indicate.
They also cite good trading data they have been running since June 2018 when the government changed. Public works for large projects follow lengthy processes in which it can take several years between the award of a contract and its execution, in connection with which Adif claims that some of the tenders held have not yet been finalized, but they will be completed. do in future exercises.
According to Adif, in 2021, tenders were held for improvements to the rail network worth 510 million in Catalonia, 63 million in Andalusia and 126 million in the Valencian Community. High-speed Madrid-Sevilla High-Speed Railway projects are among the outstanding projects. the 650 million line, or the Mediterranean Corridor with new connections between Valencia and Castello, the introduction of standard gauge between Castello and Vandelhos, or the Murcia-Almería high-speed line. This last infrastructure alone will cost 3,300 million euros, although at the moment most of it is in the initial stages.
Budget execution, organization by organization
The execution of the budget of each ministry, body or institution in the various Autonomous Communities can be checked in the following table. The search engine includes the final investment in 2021 and how far it is from the forecast. For example, Renfe is shown to have defaulted in all communities except Madrid, where it has invested more than twice as much as expected.
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