High and medium-high level donors have increased by 11% between 2017 and 2021, and represent 0.05% of total donations to NGOs and their contributions represent 1.8% of the income they receive, according to of the ‘Barometer of private philanthropy in Spain’, prepared by the Spanish Fundraising Association (AEFr).
The document – which analyzes the large donations made in Spain to non-profit entities – has been carried out in collaboration with the University Institute of Economic and Social Analysis (IAES) of the University of Alcalá and the coordination Diagram Consultores, and has had the participation of 16 large NGOs associated with the AEFr who, for the first time, have shared their data related to income and donations.
The results show that medium and high import donations have slightly increased their importance in the strategic financing of social projects, both in Spain and globally.
What is a high level donor?
In Spain, a high-level or large donor is considered one who makes an annual contribution of more than 5,000 euros. Medium-high level would be those whose annual contribution is between 3,000 and 5,000 euros, the medium level would correspond to annual contributions of between 500 and 3,000 euros, and the low level is set below 500 euros.
Based on this criterion, the AEFr barometer reveals that 97.8% of Spanish donors are low level, 2.14% would be medium level donors, 0.02% would be included in the medium level. high and 0.03% would be large donors. Medium-high level donors and large donors, with that 0.05%, represent 1.8% of the total income of NGOs.
Therefore, the study confirms the starting hypothesis that in Spain very few people engage in high-import philanthropy, although they can collaborate with more than one NGO, despite the fact that the patrimonial capacity data could point to other realities for philanthropic activity. . optics.
However, in the period analyzed by the barometer – which is between 2017 and 2021 – the number of donors with great economic capacity has grown by 11%, going from 7,223 to 8,027 those who make medium-high level contributions. , and from 319 to 354 those of high level.
As for the average donation, it increases according to the contribution range: it is 4,074 euros in the range of 3,000 to 5,001 euros; of 7,392 euros in the range of 5,000 to 10,000 euros; of 15,382 euros in the range of 10,000 to 25,000 euros; of, 41,815 euros in the range of 25,000 to 50,000 euros; of 78,764 euros in the range of 50,000 to 100,000 euros; and 187,754 euros in the range of more than 100,000 euros.
The study also details that an average of five years passes until a donor makes their first contribution of at least 5,000 euros, although there are also entities that receive large donations from the first year of collaboration and others have to wait up to eight years or further.
Regarding the profile of the large donor, according to the data from the sample of partners of the 16 NGOs that have participated in the barometer, the profile would be that of a man in 50% of the cases, compared to 41% of women and a 9% who did not specify that information.
The average age is between 50 and 70 years, they have higher education (85%), two thirds are married or live with a partner, and only half have children or other dependents. On the other hand, nine out of ten people surveyed reside in Spain and 3% in other countries.
The typical donor belongs more to a middle or upper-middle class home, where income from work is the main income, and often the only one. The report specifies that they belong to households with a significant level of wealth.
“With this new ‘Barometer of private philanthropy in Spain’ we want to identify the characteristics of a donor profile that is mythologized on some occasions, questioned on others, but rarely listened to and analyzed objectively,” details the managing director of the AEFr, Fernando Morón.
“With its publication we seek to identify mechanisms that allow us to strengthen the relationship of ENLs with these donors, improve the effectiveness of collaboration, try to promote alliances with other key actors in strategic impact planning and promote a greater culture of strategic philanthropy. in our society,” he adds.
Madrid and Catalonia concentrate
By geographical location, the large donors are concentrated mainly in the Community of Madrid (42.6%) and Catalonia (20.2%), followed by the Basque Country (8%), Andalusia (6.5%), the Valencian Community (4.6%) and Navarra. (4.2%). The rest of the regions of Spain have a representation equal to or less than 3%.
The main source of funds from large actual and potential donors is income from work (78%), followed by endowment funds (24%) and business profits (21%), in the case of legal entities.
On the other hand, the main criteria for collaborating with an NGO are the cause for which it works, the transparency of the organization and efficient management, in addition to its reputation. The personal connection of the donor with the cause also has important weight.
People who make high donations in Spain share the main motivations of those who donate in general, such as empathy with the people who will receive help and the search for ethics or justice. Regarding the causes, humanitarian crises and emergencies (70%) and poverty and social exclusion (62%) are the two causes with the greatest support, followed by childhood (38%), health and research (25%) and human rights (23%).
The study highlights that one in four people from large donors collaborates as a volunteer in an NGO, exceeding the level of involvement of donors in general, in which one in five people, according to the ‘Donor Profile 2022’ report from the AEFr. Furthermore, 13% of large donors have already made a will of solidarity, doubling the resources of the rest of the partners and collaborators with NGOs.
The ‘Barometer of private philanthropy in Spain’ concludes that becoming a large donor is not inherent to having high economic resources since there are different studies that indicate that philanthropy is the result of a process whose trigger is personal, independent and the income or assets of the person, although these do influence whether the solidarity contributions reach the level of high import.
The NGOs that have participated in the ‘Barometer of private philanthropy in Spain’ are Acción Contra el Hambre, Acnur, Anesvad, Ayuda en Acción, CEAR, Spanish Red Cross, Josep Carreras Foundation, Pasqual Maragall Foundation, Greenpeace, Oxfam-Intermón, Doctors of the World, Doctors Without Borders, Thyssen-Bornemisza National Museum, Plan International Spain, World Vision Spain and WWF.