As part of the Rospotrebnadzor Healthy Eating project, experts reminded of the basic rules for protection against possible poisoning.
1. Food poisoning infections are numerous and varied: salmonellosis, listeriosis, botulism, proteus, clostridium; conditionally pathogenic flora – staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli; viruses – rotavirus, enterovirus.
2. The most dangerous foods in terms of the development of food poisoning:
– dairy products;
– eggs (especially raw);
– dishes with meat;
– fish dishes (especially with raw fish);
– confectionery with cream;
– homemade preserves and pickles, marinades;
– perishable products that require cold storage;
– culinary products in case of violation of sanitary rules during their preparation;
– tubers and vegetables (due to possible contamination).
It is definitely not worth taking the risk and using products if:
– the product has expired or is about to expire;
– its packaging is broken (dents, abrasions, blurred paint);
– the product has an uncharacteristic odor;
– the taste, color and consistency of the product are modified;
– there is sediment at the bottom of the bottle, the transparency is broken.
3. The main signs of food poisoning.
– Food poisoning and toxic poisoning develop very quickly (the incubation period is usually 2-6 hours), the symptoms are growing rapidly.
– Poisoning usually occurs in the form of outbreaks in a family or community, in all or almost all who used spoiled food.
– It is important to know: even if the product seems normal in appearance and taste, poisoning can still occur, since it may contain microorganisms and toxins (this is, for example, typical of products and canned foods contaminated with botulinum pathogens).
– Food that has been stored for some time after cooking is potentially dangerous. However, freshly prepared food can also cause food poisoning.
4. Symptoms of food poisoning:
– elevated temperature (from 37-37.5 to 39-40 degrees);
– loss of appetite, malaise;
– nausea and vomiting;
– bloating and upset stools;
– pain of a colic nature;
– cold sweat, decreased pressure.
In severe cases, including exposure to neurotoxic poisons, there are:
– blurred vision, double vision;
– muscle tone disorders;
– strong salivation (hypersalivation);
– violations of the brain (hallucinations, delirium, coma), loss of consciousness;
– problems with the peripheral nervous system (paresis and paralysis);
– signs of dehydration due to fluid loss (dry mucous membranes, decreased urine volume, weight loss).
5. Basic rules of prevention.
– Personal Hygiene: Be sure to wash your hands and food before preparing food and immediately before sitting down to eat. For example, before you crack an egg, wash it with soap and water.
– Wash knives and cutting boards well. Buy several cutting boards for the kitchen: cut vegetables, fruits, bread, cheeses and sausages on one board, raw meat and fish on another.
– Defrost meat and fish just before cooking. Fry them until fully cooked. It is better to refuse dishes with raw or half-cooked meat, fish and eggs.
– Don’t cook a lot of food. Store cooked foods in the refrigerator for no more than 3 days. Do not store raw meat and fish together with cooked food in the same compartment in the refrigerator.
– Do not eat food from damaged or swollen cans, do not buy canned food if it is in wrinkled packaging, without a label.
– Eat mushrooms only if you are 100% sure about them.
– You cannot eat green potatoes, and sprouted potatoes must be cleaned well.
– Do not eat caviar and milk of pike, perch, burbot and mackerel: if the fish is caught during the spawning period, they contain toxic substances.
– Do not store food in galvanized, copper or scratched (with chips) enameled containers.