They simply did not have time to rest.
And on February 23?
After all, it’s been celebrated since 1919, right? That’s right, we were celebrating. But they did not rest.
First, the military had a holiday on February 17, it was called the Day of the Red Gift. In essence and in form, this is a large-scale undertaking to raise money and things for the needs of the military. When February 23 was introduced, Red Gift Day was cancelled. 100 years ago, in 1923, the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic declared three holidays: February 21, 22 and 23.
But the holiday had its own details. Although the fighters were exempt from military service, they were sent to parades, and this is by no means a vacation. And for the rest of the country it was during the week. February 23 became non-working only in 2001!
Before the revolution, there were many holidays (days of non-attendance in factories and factories) in Russia – up to 45. Mostly religious.
Let’s say, in February 1917, the village had 7 days of rest: four Sundays and three holidays: the Presentation of the Lord and the days of Maslenitsa Cheese Week.
Maslenitsa is a frankly pagan holiday, and the church separated from the state only after the revolution. However, Christians had the right to legal holidays (representatives of other religions had their own holidays). The Russian Orthodox Church warned the faithful against unbridled joy, as they had to prepare for Great Lent. But the people rejoiced with all their hearts on Shrove Tuesday, and nothing could be done about it by anyone: neither the tsar nor the church.
Partly so now. The pagan carnival will merrily spread across the country from February 20 to 26. Today does not appear as a red day on the calendar, but rather coincides with the long weekend.
Let’s go back to the pre-revolutionary parties. If the situation with red days in honor of icons and saints is reasonable, then in terms of civilians it is absurd. Russia has a rich history, and it would be logical to create holidays in honor of great victories and historical events. But instead, as many as 9 holidays were established in honor of the name day and anniversaries of the coronation of the royal family: Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, autocrat Nicholas II, Empress Maria Feodorovna and Tsarevich Alexei.
Of course, after the revolution, they were all immediately written off.
Atheists also rested on Easter
In 1918, workers were supposed to have 16 red calendar days: six state and 10 religious.
Status: January 1 (New Year), January 22 (January 9, 1905), March 12 (collapse of autocracy), March 18 (Day of the Paris Commune), May 1 (International Day) and November 7 (proletarian revolution).
Officially, religious holidays were delicately referred to as “special days of rest” in the decrees. But now I open the calendar of 1923, and there in black and white: January 7 and 8 – Orthodox Christmas. Chr., January 6 – Catholic Epiphany, 11 and 12 – Ditch Gashono (Jewish New Year). Etc.
They were installed by the unions on the ground, having received the “green light” from the Moscow People’s Commissar of Labor.
Due to the translation of the calendar into a new style (Gregorian), believers found that the holidays were familiar to them, but were “off” by two weeks in time. But there was also a pleasant moment. Popular joke: I fell asleep on January 31, woke up on February 14, salary and vacation became two weeks closer.
How did it happen that in a state of militant atheist ideology it was allowed to celebrate Christmas, Easter and the Day of the Holy Spirit? It’s simple, the majority of the population was in no hurry to register as an atheist. And the authorities could not stop counting on the people. But there were fewer and fewer “special days” in the USSR, and in 1930 they were completely canceled.
Photo: Social networks
lenin is alive
The holidays have changed. At first, on January 22, the workers were supposed to mourn in memory of “Bloody Sunday” – the execution of the workers who peacefully brought a petition to Nicholas II on January 9, 1905. But after the death of Lenin in 1924, this day became a double holiday: Lenin’s Memorial Day and January 9, 1905.
Is it okay to have fun in times of grief? No. But this thought occurred to the leaders only in 1951. After that, the holiday was canceled “at the numerous requests of the workers.” In addition, the slogan that Ilyich is more alive than all the living became more and more fashionable.
Since 1945, Victory Day has been on the calendar. More precisely, at first they set two victorious days: May 9 – over Germany, and September 3 – over Japan. But Victory Over Japan Day did not work for only two years: in 1945 and 1946.
On December 23, 1947, by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, May 9 also ceased to be non-working, although it was classified as a holiday. And, on the contrary, January 1 was then made a day off.
Front-line soldiers repeatedly asked Khrushchev to “return on May 9” (although it was not he who canceled it, but Stalin), but Nikita Sergeevich stubbornly refused. May 9 stopped working only in 1965, under Brezhnev.
In the same 1965, March 8 finally became a legal holiday.
Surveys show that at the top of our favorite holidays are New Year, Victory Day, March 8, February 23 and Easter.
And of course, on February 23. In addition to Russia, it is celebrated in Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, South Ossetia, PMR, etc. And unofficially – in all corners of planet Earth, where at least one “born in the USSR” lives.
By the way
For you Kozlov
Among the unusual regional holidays is the May Tver goat festival and all bearing the surname Kozlov. The fact is that the goat has been an unofficial symbol of the Tver province since ancient times.
In Kurgan – Cheese Day. Only it’s not in honor of cheese, cheese is a fish that lives in local reservoirs. Another name is peeled.
On the last Sunday of September, the Itelmen holiday takes place in Kamchatka. Near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, a dance marathon lasts one day. Only those who can pronounce their name are admitted. Challenge yourself, draw air into your lungs: “Alhalalalai”!
and how are they
12 vacations a year
Cambodia is the leader in terms of the number of holidays – there are 28 of them.
A little less in Iran – 26, but there is a different record: people celebrate at once according to three calendar systems: according to the solar and lunar Hijri calendars and according to the Gregorian calendar.
Sri Lanka and Myanmar have 25 public holidays each. There are many religions in these countries, and out of solidarity people celebrate everything.
According to UNESCO, the average country in the world celebrates 12 holidays. Most in the Caribbean – 14. Less than all in about. Chuuk (Micronesia) – six.
In 2023, we have 8 holidays, but at the same time there are up to 118 non-working days. A hundred years ago, there were 16 holidays in the USSR, incl. 10 religious, but then the workers rested an order of magnitude less. Because every Saturday they were working. Infographic “RG” / Anton Perepletchikov / Igor Elkov