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How much protein, fat and carbohydrates should be consumed per day. The nutritionist says

Date: June 20, 2024 Time: 11:18:48

fitness nutritionist

“Food must contain a sufficient amount of nutrients, that is, organic and inorganic substances found in food. They are divided into macronutrients and micronutrients. The body needs the first in large quantities – a person’s daily diet should contain tens of grams of protein, fat and carbohydrates. With a deficiency of nutrients, organ dysfunctions can be observed. And often these conditions lead to the development of diseases.

What are nutrients?

Nutrients are the nutrients that the body needs to function properly, renew cells, tissues and provide energy. They are found in foods and supplements. They are divided into two large groups: macro and micronutrients.

Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals found in food in very small amounts. However, its presence in the body is also important. They are involved in the process of assimilation of food eaten, growth and adaptation of the body to external conditions.

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Macronutrients are proteins, fats, carbohydrates that we need in large quantities, since they are involved in the “construction” of the foundations of the basic functions of the organism and are a source of energy. To protect yourself and your body, you need to maintain a balanced diet, taking into account the daily doses of nutrients.

What is each group of macronutrients?


Proteins are the building material of all organs and tissues. They provide a normal metabolism, strengthen and protect the immune system, deliver oxygen to tissues.

With a protein deficiency in muscle tissue, it is destroyed and sarcopenia develops. The lack of substance in the bones leads to the development of osteoporosis, and the skin without a sufficient amount of protein becomes covered with early wrinkles.

The main sources of complete protein are animal products: fish, meat, dairy, shellfish, eggs. And they are absorbed by the body by almost 100%. Vegetable protein is found in legumes, nuts, cereals, but 60-80% is absorbed, and mushroom protein is only 20-40%.

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The fats create a fatty pad between the internal organs, protecting them from bumps and displacements. They are necessary for the production of hormones, the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, maintaining the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels, intercellular membranes.

Animal fats, including milk fat, contain vitamins A and D. Vegetable fats contain large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and beta-sitosterol, which normalizes cholesterol metabolism.

Deficiency of dietary fats leads to impaired reproductive function, decreased mental abilities, frequent viral infections (ARVI), dry skin, brittle nails, hair loss, poor vision in the dark.

The main sources of fats are: nuts, seeds, unrefined vegetable oils, butter, fish oil.

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Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. In addition, they help proteins build cells, regulate metabolism, eliminate toxins, and cleanse the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). If they are not enough to replenish energy, the body begins to use fats and even proteins, which can cause serious changes in metabolism and affect the functioning of the liver and kidneys.

Fast carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, sucrose) are found in large quantities in sweets, cakes, and soft drinks. The body instantly breaks them down and immediately receives the energy it needs, but only for a short time. After 30-40 minutes, the feeling of satiety is replaced by hunger.

Complex or slow polymeric forms of carbohydrates (starch, fiber) are found in whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and dairy products. The body breaks them down into simpler ones for at least two hours, while the energy doses and remains stable, and we feel full all this time.

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Macronutrient norms

BJU norms (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) for each person are calculated individually. In each case, the set of nutrients will be different.

First, the value of the basal metabolism (the minimum amount of energy necessary for the implementation of the vital processes of the body) is determined, taking into account sex, age, weight and height. Then the daily caloric requirement is calculated with the coefficient of physical activity of a person. And only then the BJU daily norms are distributed according to meals.

If your body is normal, you do not pursue the goals of losing weight, and you want to maintain balance, then you can follow one of the calculation systems.

BJU daily norms per 1 kg of weight:

1.5-2g protein, 0.8-1.5g fat, 2g carbs.

Thus, the daily diet should consist of proportions: 3-3-4, where 30% are proteins, 30% fats and 40% carbohydrates.

The ratio of nutrients allows you to control the number of calories consumed. And for these purposes, you can use online calculators.

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Having learned the amount of BJU, you can compare the norm indicators with their individual numbers and adjust the nutrition.

What causes the lack and excess of macronutrients?

Influence of proteins

An excess of protein disrupts metabolism, negatively affects the secretory function of the stomach, affects the kidneys, liver, and leads to overexcitation of the nervous system. Also, a large amount of the nutrient affects the hormonal background.

With a lack of protein, the body does not receive important elements necessary for full metabolism and heat generation.

Influence of carbohydrates

Since these substances are responsible for replenishing energy in our body, their deficiency can inhibit mental and physical activity and negatively affect overall performance. Also, an overabundance leads to hormonal disorders and problems with the gastrointestinal tract.

Regular overeating of carbohydrate-rich foods will cause excess weight, atherosclerosis, diabetes, caries.

Effect of fats

Prolonged excessive consumption of fats increases their amount in the blood. Which, in turn, affects the functioning of internal organs. The liver is affected, the cholesterol content in the blood increases, the load on the activity of the pancreas increases. All this leads to obesity, atherosclerosis.

Lack of fat also negatively affects organ function. Nutritional deficiencies cause water imbalance, dry skin, weight loss, slow physical and mental development.

Micronutrients and their effect on the body

As for micronutrients, the body needs them in small amounts. The daily requirement for vitamins and some minerals is measured in milligrams and micrograms. However, its deficiency can lead to serious diseases of the body.

With a lack of vitamins, hypovitaminosis occurs – moderate deficiencies with loss of appetite, irritability, fatigue, bleeding gums, skin diseases. And in the absence of vitamins, beriberi develops – deep deficiencies with specific diseases (scurvy, pellagra, rickets, beriberi, night blindness).

The need for vitamins depends on age, gender, physical activity and living conditions. To a greater extent, vitamins are necessary for children, pregnant women, in cold weather, in a stressful situation, with a lack of ultraviolet radiation.

Water-soluble vitamins C and B are found in fruits, berries, vegetables, and herbs. Sources of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K include fish oil, butter, cream, and some vegetables.

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Minerals are divided into macro and microelements. Macroelements include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chlorine and sulfur, microelements – iron, copper, zinc, iodine, fluorine, manganese and others.

Calcium is found in dairy and shellfish, legumes, and nuts. Its deficiency leads to impaired bone formation, nervous excitability and impaired blood coagulation. Magnesium is present in cereals, vegetables, eggs, potatoes, bread and meat. Its deficiency reduces immunity, causes seizures, muscle weakness. Milk, vegetables, potatoes, bananas, apricots, kiwi and cereals are rich in potassium. Heart weakness, arterial hypotension and impaired kidney function are associated with a lack of potassium.Iron is found in red meat, fish, poultry, buckwheat, quince, figs, peaches, rose hips. With iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia develops, decreased immunity, attention, and learning ability are observed.Iodine is found in the greatest amount in shellfish, especially shrimp, algae, and it is present in egg yolk, potatoes and turkey meat. Its deficiency reduces attention and reaction, causes problems in the heart and blood vessels. And if the deficiency of the substance is not replenished for a long time, the thyroid gland increases.

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Puck Henry
Puck Henry
Puck Henry is an editor for ePrimefeed covering all types of news.

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